This book makes the “business case” for the role of biotechnology innovations for sustainable development in emerging and developing economies. It seeks to support the factual debate on biosciences and technology for developing and emerging economies. The book argues that careful applications of biosciences and technology to clearly identified development challenges can result in positive outcomes of communities, farmers and enterprises, environment and society at large. The book provides a compilation of selected studies from different emerging and developing countries that illustrate either the potential or demonstrated value of a particular biotechnology application for sustainable agricultural innovation and/or industrial development.